Audio-Visual Medium Of Mass Communication;
Television And Film:-
Television, is an extensively used medium in the modern lifestyle of us all. Television is considered to be a distinguished medium among all other mediums we have today, and also be the most attractive medium that can involve anykinds of audience of different tastes and ages. Television has however managed, in involving a significant number of viewers and a wider range of influence over the largr number of sponsors, business houses and entrepreneurs in such competitive media business today. It dominates the media world through its unique performances that it possesse by its own virtue of combined ‘audio-visual’ presenting ability at a time, which belongs to none of the other media.
Origin & Development Of Television
Television broadcast took place first and foremost in U.S.A alongwith few European countries, in the year 1920. Due to lack of advanced technologyand whatever available during that time, that could not telecast the pictures in a quick succession accordingly. Later on, in the year 1923, with the application of further modified and upgraded technology,television appeared in proper get-up to the receivers’ home successfully.In the year 1930, National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) began to telecast through a set-up of TV station in Newyork.On the other hand BBC started their venture through London station. Germany and France also followed the same way,in setting-up tv station with a view to telecast programmes in their country successfully.
But the progress of television confronted severe obstruction due to break out of world war(11) in the year 1942 which influence further development significantly. In the year 1948, America extended their tv networks by settin-up further 41 tv stations covering 22 cities involving half a millionof people in their country. Within decade, this figure jumped drastically up by 533 stations which ran to involve 55 millions of viewers with their own television sets.
Later on, the age of space i.e. satellite communication system was applied to betterise the existing way of telecast extensively in the world. In the year 1962, the first satellite system ‘Early Bird’ was introduced in the process of telecast of television. Within a few years,in 1965and in 1971,two big international sattelites were ejected into the space respectively, as to link the television for phenomenal transmission in the world..These were ‘Intelsat’ and ‘Intersputnik’. Presently, almost every country in the world,has earth station linked to satellite for transmission and receving signals of television.
Then after in 1970, an exotic and revolutionized change had come in the television arena. Japan employed optical fibre cable and computer controlled techniques in transmitting television signals in better manner maintaining most desired ‘two way’ vedio communication successfully.Thu, television today, can provide a number of various channels with good quality of picture through direct to home (DTH) service and digital compression technology,to the audience extensively.
Although most of the poor countries from the under-developed world(Asia,Africa) still have not possession to such satellite to serve their own purposes.
Television In India:-
Television in India, came in delay, after having the approval and consent of the government to a long awaited demand and needs of many Indians fron different segments like scientists,educationists,polititians,businessmen and other institutions and professional study centres etc. With the financial assistanceas acquired from UNESCO. and equipmental support from U.S.A, the government of India started its Delhi centre on sept15, in the year 1957 successfully. Delhi centre had the range to cover 40 kilometers of surrounding areas. The TV centre continued to broadcst programme on ‘social education’ of twenty minutes duration twice in a week. There were 180 ‘teleclubs’ that were entitled to view the programme with the acquired sets of television,as donated by UNESCO. In the month of August 1965, the programmes on ‘entertainment & informations’ in addition to the existing programmes that center would broadcast.
In 1970, Delhi TV center increased its duration by three hours as to broadcast news, entertainment programmes,informations and others. During this period,the number of totl TV sets in India were 22000 only excluding the community television sets as donated by UNESCO. But at end of the decade seventy, the number of sets were jumped by all about 2 lacs. In the year 1972,another TV centre was established in Bombay,followed by relay centers like Shrinagar, Amritsar and Pune. In the year 1975, Calcutta,Madras and Lucknow were included in TV map of India . From the starting of the year 1976. commercialization took place in Indian television. In the same year 1976 on 6th april,Indian television appeared in new banner as ‘Doordarshan’after detaching from All India Radio and began to continue its programmes independently remained under the ministry of information and broadcasting. A significant event took place in the history of Indian television when, teresterial transmitters were introduced at Jaipur, Raipur,Muzaffarpur Hyderabad,Gulbarga and Sambalpur for wider coverage that included 100 millions of people.
Then a new development was achieved in Indian television history,when Satellite Instructional Television Experiments (SITE) was conducted. It was then, brought an international prestige for India for its approach towards television operation in advanced manner. SITE was introduced in India wuth the sole assistance of National Aeronautics and Space Agency(NASA) which allowed a satellite ATS 6,for this purpose in free of cost for period of one year.
In the mid-year 1980,Another centre was stared in in Delihi (DD-2). In the same year, , another TV centre was set-up in Bombay follwed by other metro cities also later on.
Educational Programme In Television:-
In India, Doordarshan started its way with the aim and mission to educate and inform the viewers all by providing such arranged and organized programmes. Doordarshan with its best,has discharged of its responsibilities which was aspired for.Doordarshan,with its many ‘Kendras’,have been conducting many educational programmes that include the ranges from the primary lavel to higher secondary standard covering varied contents on multi-subjects with wider area and dimensions. Such qualitative contents are helping the the school teachers all in remote places who can make their students to be upgraded with better ideas and thoughts respect to their studiessatisfactorily. These efforts of educating the students as well as the teachers at the same time with better techniques of teaching their students, have continuously been running through different ‘Kendras’ of Doordarshan.Today, a diverse programmes on education and respective informations, from primary standard to university lavel are available from Doordarshan educational networks. Indira Gandhi National Open University ( IGNOU), University Grant Commission (UGC),National Council for Education Research and Training(NCERT) and Education Department of India.are enjoying the benefits of such constructive activities of Doordarshan,which have allowed them to be with such greater part of educational enhancement..Beside this,Doordarshan has significantly been catering programs with a view to expanding education among the ‘Adults’, which is indeed,a highly recommendable discharge of responsibility for the nation .. Doordarshan can claim its dedicative role and contribution to the development of education nationwide truly.
Television And National Development:-
Televison can play a vital role on the development of nation building in any country .Television, as being an audio-visual medium,has an enormous advantages in influencing as well as encouraging a significant number of its viewers by calling them into participating with the activities of national developmental works that are undertaken by the government of the concerned state or country.Television medium can cater such contents on the developmental issues as many as possible, that can inspire the viewers to be involved in the greater part of national growth and prosperity. A viewable programme on the issue of national development,as catered by the television,would definitely be attractiveprofoundly, understandable easily, so that would lead the viewers to be concentrated more intensely to the matter and ultimately which would impulse them to get involved in this mission and ideals of national development. It is almost true,that the television medium can impact or influence sigmificantly than other medium of mass communication. It can enhance and extend the ideas and thought of the rural development like proper usage of available water for cultivation, boost of crops production, education for every children,birth control,upgrading the health of both mother and new born babies, employment opportunities for the unemployed youth presrvation of natural resources and environment etc.’Doordarshan’ caters such indispensable contents or programms on different issues of nationalbdevelopmen, with adequate informations and updated ideas and thought regularly to its viewers with greater care and attention. Doordarshan has become the key medium of communication of the government at the centre as well as the different states, as to inspire the people of the country with a view to gear up the major people’s participation into the projected developmental works of the country extensively for achieving targeted result.
Characteristics Of Television:-
Television is a unique medium of mass communication that can deliver an incomparable presentation of both audio and visual.at a time.Television broadcast can influence both senses of ‘hearing and viewing’of human simultaneously. It can satisfy the viewers in complete,by producing better understandability and amusements than any medium that we have.Television so,has become,a distinctive medium that has been dominating the fieald of mass communication predominatly.Television carriesa few special features of other mediums like stage, film and radio with a unique combination of presentation.
Television As A Glamour Medium:-
Television,is a glamour medium that provides many allurable programs for its diverse users or viewers day long tiredlessly.It presents many glittering personalities,important events, international conference and concert, games and sports of international standard and festives of diverse before the viewers for satisfying their needs and demand. Television can provide so many programs of interests in facilititating manner to its innumerous users to retain its attraction and glamour in enhancing approach day by day.
Television can generate tele-addiction within its lot of viewers who remain stick to its enchanting programms by showing absolutely dependence on it. In the true sense, television has successfully been able to hypnotise its many viewers by its unique ‘magical power’that it deserves.
Television As A Multi-purpose Medium :-
Television possesses a collective properties as a whole, that includes partial virtue of different media like print, radio, theatre or film and video simultaneously. It delivers important informatins or announcement in the form of printed words likealarming weather report, security alerts or any other cautionary messages or any warnings on behalf of the government of state etc.There are so many programmes basically audio-oriented like songs, instrumentals and classicals,speech of distinguished personalities, news and other educational programmes which can be enjoyed without viewing the presentation minutely or sitting before the television set speciallyat all. Such programmes as delivered, by the television, do not impede any user to remain stick to such presentation as the radio caters to us in the same way. And the rest other programmes which are abundantly catered by the television, which are basically of audio-visual over all.All such programmes are indeed, enjoyable not only by hearing but viewing also at the same time. Actually, the supremacy of the television lies within its unique audio-visual transmission of any program. Because, the combination of such audio and visual characteristics at the same time generates a unique sensation and experience both in ear and eyes, that enables the viewers to acquire a distinctive feelings of pleasure as well as enjoyments, that no other medium can provide at all at the same lavel of highness. The contents that the television presents for us,is appearing as animated which acquire wider acceptability and response from the viewers end.The presentation of serials,dramas,fims amd concrts offer an environment of theatre or any stage programmes to us.With the aid of the television, we can enjoy a lot of diversified programs in our drawing room by keeping a set of TV easily and comfortably.
Beside the above, it (TV) can embroaden the relationship not only between the family members but also the relationship between the neighbours eually,by inviting them all to view anykinds of desired programs sitting before the screen.Thus it can produce an environment of inter-active part and discussion that could be held in between the assembled viewers. It signifies the healthier effect of communication through a medium like television. Beside this, there are so many progrmmes are catered where live in telephone arrangement has been undertaken for the sake of viewers,as they could participate directly into any desired programme like education,healthcare, taxes and shares or any others as they opt for. In such arranged programme,the participating viewers can ask any question directly to the presenter respect to the ongoing programme with a view to getting right answere accordingly.
Cable television has changed the scenario of viewing television,which is being operated by the government of the state. Previously,we,the viewers had only ‘Doordarhan’to enjoy the pleasure of audio-visual medium of mass communication.But now, from the decade of niney, the emergence of cable television, has been experienced in the audio-visual arena significantly. Presently,there are so many cable operators who have been operating such long-desired audio-visual medium of varieties consisting of a wide range of channels, those are originated by the different foreign television organizations like, BBC, CNN, Star, Discovery and ESPN. An unimaginable presentation of different types of programme which were not available in ‘Doordarshan’, can be enjoyed now by anyone through a cable connection easily.It is undeniable,that the modern television could not be complete without such cable television. A wide range of variety progrmme which can be had in your television,if the television is connected to the cable operator’s network.A lot of enchanting programmes,available from cable service, which would never be possible to present at the same level by ‘Doordarshan’, that can be controlled through your remote control to suit ypur choices easily.Cable television was necessary in our country, as to enhance and upgrade the ideas and thought of ‘Doordarshan’ in presenting qualitative programmes of multi-tastes for the numerous viewers.It is indeed,that the cable television has brought a new wave in the audio-visual arena as well as has allowed the Indian television to think for future in the new window.
Television, As A Business Booster.
Television, as being an audio-visual medium, has an extraordinary appeal and attraction inherently as compared to other mediums of mass communication..With the help of such distinctive virtue of the television, promotiona works could successfully be done for making a significant place both in the commercial and professional arena. Not only for promoting any kinds of newly launched products in the market, but also for any individuals and many others activities, with view to extend or enhance its recognization as ell as its acceptance from the numerous viewers of this medium of mass communication
Advertisement,an important and effective tool of public relation. The activity of any business concern s well as any individual or any others,could be well reflected through an advertisement to a large number of consumers with a view to receive a greater response and sound from them as well. Advertisement,that can produce a ignificant market for any products,individuals or ny other activities,could be most effective among the other medium of mass communication, if it is done or made through television. It is studied well, that a telecasted advertisement can leave better impression on the mind of the viewers than any other medium. After being operated commercially, ‘Doordarshan’has significantly been able to become to be a targeted platform for advertisement to manyone, who are intending to launch their products in the market successfully.The other medium like ‘print’ and ‘radio’,where the rush of advertisers or sponsors,have been experienced lagging behind the television far too.The revenue collection of ‘Doordarshan’ through the advertisement,has gradually been increasing year after year so high,none is there to compare with it. Although, such accelerated rate of collecting ‘Ad’ revenue from sponsorships, has been intercepted after the ‘cable TV’jumpes over the market predominantly.Overall,television has proved itself to be a grnd medium for ‘quicker and wider’ publicity that could be hold good opportunistically by any business organization, individuals or others as well.
Impact Of Television:-
Television has established itself as an unbeatable as well as an indispensable medium of mass communication by rendering a lot of diverse programmes to the numerous different kinds of viewers categorically. It can fulfill various demands of itsmany viewers, by catering not only entertainment programmes but also it provides educative,reflective and developmental programmes. It serves the different purposes of many viewers through its small screen. It can claim in enhancing social awareness considerably well. Television has entered in our present life appreciably well. ‘TV’,today, however has revamped our life-style by influencing our tastes,desire,understanding the meaning of aristrocracy or advanced life even our culture and education also . In the true sense, television has moulded our society people, by creating a crazy trends or over-emphasis on luxurious life extensively within them.By and large, the followers of the television, oftenly try to possess a higher status than the xisting whatsoever have and want to implement other criterias of aristocratic life-style which is not procurable practically. Such trendy attitudes of many people for having such life-styles of high standard which is unattainable and notional indeed,have been bringing an imbalanced situation in their daily life. Because ,most contents of serial, dramas and films that are catered through the television programmes, are showing the all facts and features pertaining to those people’s lifr-style who belong to the higher economic or wealthy group. Nnaturally, their life-styles must be different from the major people of common. The major common people, are being provoked by viewing such allureable life-styles of the rich. In such contents which are catered by thr television,reflect another potrayal of women who are intrinsically appearing or being projected as arrogant, careless and irresponsible to their family members .andalso maintaining irregular life-style, that the major women do not indulge or do such at all. The major women, might be inspired by such irregular and indecent life-style which they think for about so-called aristocracy.
Moreover,the contents of television almost ,include sex and nudity, violence, atrocity, robbery and other anti-social events profusely. By viewing those undesireable contents,the immatured teenagers have been inspired by following the same and get deflected and wrongly driven in their life. The affective part of the television contents, may mislead or seduce the teenagers by producing incontrollable emphasis or impractical emotion vehemently within them, for its immediately implementation accordingly.
Television, is the most powerful medium of mass communication at the present days. It disseminates whatcontents for its viewers, leave a significant impression into their mind. Later on,such impression left by the television, is being cultivated and nurtured by a few numbes of its emphatic users seriously. Such growing tendency towards its implementation in their life practically,has brought fatal disorder and turmoils in our general social life. Disobedience and unrulyness among the youth, have become the cause of anxiety to manyone as well as the threat to our society. Violence and agitation for futile reason and malpractices in every corner are the prevailing phenomenons of our society today that we experience muchmore. The aggravated deteriorating situation of our present society,is the result of the abusive or provocative parts of the contents, as presented by the television widely and in repeatative manner. Almost contents those are presented by the television,do not reflect the ‘suffering and miserable’ life of the major portions of the people, who belong to poor and lower-medium economic section covering two-third of our Indian society.
Cinema; The Motion Pictures World
Introduction:- The cinema of India consists of films produced acrossIndia, including the cinematic culture of Mumbaii along with the cinematic traditions of states such as Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Asam andPunjub. Indian films came to be followed throughout South Asia and theMiddle East ,where modest dressing and subdued sexuality of these films was found to be acceptable to the sensibilities of the audience belonging to these regions. As cinema as a medium gained popularity in the country as many as 1,000 films in various languages Of India were produced annually. Expatriates in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States continued to give rise to international audiences for Hindi languages films, some of which are continued to carry "formulaic story lines, expertly choreographed fight scenes, spectacular song-and-dance routines, emotion-charged melodrama, and larger-than-life heroes This is contrasted by the ‘Parallel Cinema' movement, prominent in Bengali,Malayalam and other regional industries, known for its serious content, realism and naturalism
At the starting of cinematography, pictures were seen through ‘kinetoscope’,whi.ch was devised by Edison.In such arrangements,one could see the pictures by peeping through a pinhole box where a spool o pictures was lying to be photographed on a flexible film finally.Such flexible film was invented by George Eastman.Now,the spool of pictures was allowed to revolve in a quicker mode as to creat an illusion to the viewer. Then the viwer would have experienced of viewing motion picture.On April 14, in the year 1894, such illusive as well as attractive technique was applied to displayed publicly first in ‘Broadway’,Nuyork.
The pictures all, shown in this way,were motionless. It were illusion of motion,that were produced by the film projector macine.The projector would able to produce uch illusion of motion to the viewers,by rotating the rolled up pictures very fstly. Such fast movement of picture contained a continuous motion,would come to the eyes of the viewers,as ‘motion pictures’.It was the magic of film then,which was voiceless enjoyment indeed.
The Dickson Experimental Sound Film is a film made by William Kennedy-Laurie Dickson (1860-1935) in late 1894 or early 1895. It is the first known film with live-recorded sound and appears to be the first example of a motion picture made for the Kinetophone, the proto-sound-film system developed by Dickson and Thomas A. Edison. The film was produced at the "Black Maria", which was Edison's film studio at New Jersy. There is no evidence that it was ever exhibited in its original format. Newly digitized and restored, it is the only surviving Kinetophone film with live-recorded sound.
The movie features Dickson playing a violin into a recording cone for an off-camera wax cylinder. In front of Dickson, two men dance to the music. In the final seconds, a fourth man briefly crosses from left to right behind the cone. The running time of the restored film is 17 seconds; the accompanying cylinder contains approximately two minutes of sound, including 23 seconds of violin music, encompassing the film's soundtrack. After its restoration in 2000, the Dickson Experimental Sound Film was selected for inclusion in the United States National Film Registry.
On this day of 12th March in the year 1923,, inventor Lee de Forest presented Phonofilm’, which was the first film capable of taping sound as well. Music was recorded on a narrow strip at the edge of the film. The presentation exhibited a man and woman were dancing, four musicians had been playing instruments, and an Egyptian dancer, all were being accompanied by music but there was no dialogue at all.
‘Feature films’ with sound would not appear in the field of film for several years, as movie studios sought to avoid a standards war.
Until the 1920s, any sound accommodated with motion pictures either came from live actors and musicians or from phonographs synchronized to the action onscreen. *In the year 1889, an assistant of Thomas Edison demonstrated the Kinetophonograph, a phonograph synched to Edison's early movie projector, the Kinetoscope. De Forest's enhancement of film that could carry sound was acquired by Fox and evolved into the Movietone sound process, introduced in 1927.
But within 1927, several different types of movie sound systems were developed, which brought new problem for silent movie theaters. Fitting a movie theater for a sound system was extremely costly-to wire a movie house for Warner Bros.' Vitaphone sound system, for example, would cost about $20,000 which was unaffordable then.
Several studios, like MGM, Paramount, and Universal, all agreed to wait to make talkies until they agreed on a single audio standard, but Warner Bros.,did not impart to the agreement, released the earliest sound films. For Warner Bros., then in difficult financial straights, sound was a matter of survival: The struggling company had staked everything on acquiring the Vitaphone system and publicizing its early sound movies. The first, Don Juan (1926), starring John Barrymore, featured sound but no dialogue. The following year, the studio released The Jazz Singer, which included music as well as about 350 words of dialogue. Only about 200 theaters nationwide were equipped for Warner Bros.' Vitaphone, so a silent version of the movie was also distributed. The company was luckyenough to have made the gamble--sound caught on and revived Warner Bros.' fortunes.
Emergence Of Film In India:-
On 7th July,1896, at ‘Watson’s Hotel’ in Bombay,the first film was displayed through screen with the help of the cinematograph of Lumiere Brothers.The event of such scaring display of first film in India was called “wonder of the world”and “marvel of the century”.The item list was as follows; ‘The Sea Bath’, ‘Arrival of a Train’, ‘The ladies and the Soldiers on the Wheels’etc.Beside those, other shorts films were shown at the ‘Novelty Theatre’ in Bombay.
On 8th Jan,1887, few imported short films,were shown in the ‘Gayetri Theatre’ in Bombay. Those films were ‘Mr.Gladstone’s Funeral’,’Death of Nelson’,Call on Londondon Fire Brigade’etc Beside this the foreign film makers made films in India also. Among those the name of, Great Imambara Palace, Our Great Empire,.A Train Arriving At Bombay Station.Poona Races.A Dancing Scene From The Flower Of Persia could be stated significantly
The Silent Film Age:-
In the year 1897, H.S. Bhatvadekar, a Maharashtrain,who imported an updated camera along with a projector of Lumiere Brothers,to make a short film carrying the story of fighting between two wrestlers and a man training a monkey.Although, He finally unveiled film for exhibition in the year 1899. In the year 1900,Hiralal Sen made few pieces of Bengali film in Calcuta.Later on,in the year 1902, J.M. Madan launched ‘Bioscope’which was showing films in a tent.Then the films of fifty to sixty feet in length were imported from abroad for running such bioscope.Then the films of longer length,that could continue thirty to forty minutes duration.Such period of time was sufficient for any feature film. J.M. Madan had a chain of such entrepreneurship of film showing in different positions and places in India.
In the year 1912, A film ‘Paudalik’, was made of a dramatic story,by Torney who with the assistance of C, J, Chaitre.The film took the dramatic story of a Maharastrain saint, and gained wide popularity then.
Soon after during this time,the arrival of Dadasaheb Phalke, in the fim world,was a significant event.With his creative imagination and indomitable will power,Phalke jumped over film making.In the year 1913,Dadasaheb made a very long film of 3700 feet length,in the name ‘Raja Harishchandra’.His entire efforts was entrusted with the mission of ‘Swedeshi’and acquired wide acceptance as well as popularity as well. This film was historic and is considered to be the first feature film of India. In the same year, Phalke made another film in the name’Bhasmasur Mohini’.Next year,in 1914, Phalke made ‘Satyaban Savitri’for the Indian viwers. ‘Krishna Janma’ and ‘Kalia Mardan’, were made by Phalke in the year 1918 and 1919 respectively. Where Phalke’s daughter Mandakini played the role of little’ Krishna’very competently and acquired immediate and wide popularity.
In the same year in 1919, J.F. Madan made the film ‘Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra’ in Calcutta which is considered as the first silent fim in Bengal.
From 1913 to 1931,during this period of time more than 1300 films were produced among all of which were silent. Meanwhile,Indian cinematographic Act was passed in the year 1918 for systemize the licensing procedure and censorship.There were about 1300 cinema halls in the year 1923 in India.
In the year 1924, Chandulal Sahu made a film in the name ‘Gun Sundari’which was called the first social film in India. Himansu Rai made a film, which was an Indo-German production in the title of ‘A Light of Asia in 1925’.It was the first stride to make a film in the realm of international co-production.
During this period of silent film in India, an important matter is to be nited that America dominated this field of showing film significantly. About 85 per cent of the total film in Indian market,was controlled by the foreign venturers in all respect. Only Indian entrepreneurships were limited to 15 per cent control over the film market.
Sound Film; The Talkies.
During the year 1928, sound film began to produce to show film in a new window.The western country like America, France and German pioneered themselves in this regard of sound synchronized film making significantly. In India,the first sound film; talkie was shown at Calcutta, in the title of ‘Melody of Love’ which was a foreign venture. In 1931,the first Indian talkie was produced in the name of ‘Alam Ara’ and few films were produced in Hindi, Bengali, Tamil and Telegu also. By the year 1933, About seventy five films were produced in Hindi.
An appreciable effort was paid in making first ‘colour film’in India,Madan Theatre. The said concern took the film ‘Bilwa Mangal’for further processing to the abroad.. Later on, Prabhat Co,took same initiative to go to Germany for converting their film ‘Sairandhri’into colour.In India the first ever colour film was prepared in the year 1937, Ardeshir Irani,made ‘Kisan Kanya’in colour exposure. Actually.colour films came as usual in India , in the fifties.During this period of time Mehboob’s ‘Ann’, Sohrab Modi’s Jhansi Ki Rani’, Santaram’s ‘Jhanak Jhanak Payel Baje’etc,were significant among them.
Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara, the first Indian talking film, on March 14, 1931. Following the inception of 'talkies' in India some film stars were highly sought after and earned comfortable incomes through acting As sound technology advanced the 1930s saw the rise of music in Indian cinema with musicals such as Indra Sabha and Devi Devyani marking the beginning of song-and-dance in India's films Studios emerged across major cities such asChennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai as film making became an established craft by 1935, exemplified by the success of Debdas, which had managed to enthrall audiences nationwide.Bombay Talkies came up in 1934 j and Prabhat Studios in Pune had begun production of films meant for the Marathi Language audience. Filmmaker R. S. D. Choudhury produced Wrath (1930), banned by theBritish Raj in India as it depicted actors as Indian leaders, an expression censored during the days of theIndian Independence Movement.
The Indian Masala Film —a slang used for commercial films with song, dance, romance etc.—came up following the second world war. South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout India with the release of S.S. Vasan's Chandralekha During the 1940s cinema in South India accounted for nearly half of India's cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as an instrument of cultural revival. The partition of India following its independence divided the nation's assets and a number of studios went to the newly formed Pakistan The strife of partition would become an enduring subject for film making during the decades that followed.
Following independence the cinema of India was inquired by the S.K. Patil Commission S.K. Patil, head of the commission, viewed cinema in India as a 'combination of art, industry, and showmanship' while noting its commercial value Patil further recommended setting up of a Film Finance Corporation under the Ministry of Finace This advice was later taken up in 1960 and the institution came into being to provide financial support to talented filmmakers throughout India The Indian government had established a Films Division by 1949 which eventually became one of the largest documentary film producers in the world with an annual production of over 200 short documentaries, each released in 18 languages with 9000 prints for permanent film theaters across the country.
The Indian People’s Theatre Association (IPTA), an art movement with a communist inclination, began to take shape through the 1940s and the 1950s. A number of realistic IPTA plays, such as Bijan Bhattacharya’s Nabanna in 1944 (based on the tragedy of the Bengal’s Famine of 1943), prepared the ground for the solidification of realism in Indian cinema, exemplified by Khwaia Ahmed Abbas’s Dharti Ke Lal (Children of the Earth) in 1946. The IPTA movement continued to emphasize on reality and went on to produce Mother India and Pyaasa, among of India's most recognizable cinematic productions.
** Golden Age Of Cinema:-
FollowingIndia’s Independendence, the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the 'Golden Age' of Indian cinema Some of the most critically acclaimed Indian films of all time were produced during this period. In commercial Hhindi Cinema, examples of films at the time include the Guru Dutta films Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool(1957) and the Raj Kapoor filmsAwaara(1951) and Shree 420 (1955). These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life Some of the most famous ep[c film of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time, including Mehboob Khan’s Mother India's (1957), which was nominated for the ‘Academy Award’ for best foreign film and K.Asif’s ‘Mughal-e-Azam’ (1960). V Santaram’s ‘Do AakhenBaraah Haath’ (1957) is believed to have inspired the Hollywood film The Dirty Dozen (1967).’Madhumati’ (1958), was directed byBimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak, popularized the theme ofreincarnation in westernpopular culture. Other mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijoy Bhatt..
While commercial Indian cinema was thriving, the period also saw the emergence of a new Parappel Cinema movement , mainly led by Bengali cinema Early examples of films in this movement include Chetan Anand’s ‘Neecha Nagar’ (1946), Ritwik Ghatak’s ‘Nagarik’ (1952), and Bimal Roy’s Two Acre of Land’ (1953), laying the foundations for Indian neorealism and the "Indian New Wave".’Pather Panchali’ (1955), the first part of ‘The Apu Trilogy’ (1955-1959) by Satyajit Roy, marked his entry in Indian cinema. The Apu Trilogy won major prizes at all the major international film festival and led to the 'Parallel Cinema' movement being firmly established in Indian cinema. Its influence on world cinema can also be felt in the "youthful coming-of-age dramas, that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties" which "owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak went on to direct many more critically-acclaimed Art films', and they were followed by other acclaimed Indian independent filmmakers such as Mrinal Sen, Adoor Gopalkrishnan,Mani Kaul and Budhadev Dasgupta, During the 1960s, Indira Gandhi’s intervention during her reign as the Information and Broadcasting Minister of India further led to production of off-beat cinematic expression being supported by the official Film Finance Corporation.
The cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy, also had an importance influence on cinematography across the world. One of his most important techniques was house lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming ‘Aparajita’ (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy. Some of the experimental techniques which Satyajit Ray pioneered include photonagative flashbacks and X-Ray digressions while filming ‘Prativandi’ (1972 y's 1967 script for a film to be called The Alien, which was eventually cancelled, is also widely believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spieillberg’sE.T. (1982). Some of Ritwik Ghatak's films also have strong similarities to later famous international films, such as ‘Ajantrik’ (1958) resembling the Herbie films (1967-2005) and ‘BariTheke Palie’ (1958) resemblingFrancois Truffaul’s The 400 Blows (1959).
Other regional industries also had their 'Golden Age' during this period. Commercial Tamil cinema experienced a growth in the number of commercially successful films produced. Some of the most famous Tamil film personalities at the time included M.G.Ramachandran, Shivaji Ganeshan, M. N. Nambiyar, Asokan andNageshMarathi cinema also ushered in a 'Golden Age' at this time, with some of its directors such asV,Santaram later playing in instrumental role in mainstream Hindi cinema's 'Golden Age'
Ever since Chetan Anand's social realist film Neecha Nagar won the grand prize at the first Cannes Film festival. Indian films were frequently in competition for the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival for nearly every year in the 1950s and early 1960s, with a number of them winning major prizes at the festival. Satyajit Roy also won theGolden Lion at the Venice Film Festival forAparajita (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy, and the Golden Bear and two Silver Bears for best director at the Berlin International Film Festival. Ray's contemporaries, Ritwik Ghatak and Guru Dutta, were overlooked in their own lifetimes but had belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s and 1990.S. Ray wass regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century, while Dutt and Ghatak were also among the greatest filmmakers of all time. In 1992, the Sight and Sound Critics' Poll ranked Ray at #7 in its list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time while Dutt was ranked #73 in the 2002 Sight & Sound greatest directors poll
A number of Indian films from this era are often included among thegreatest films of alltime in various critics' and directors' polls. A number of Satyajit Ray films appeared in the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll, including The Apu Trilogy (ranked #4 in 1992 if votes are combined), TheMusic Room (ranked #27 in 1992), Charulata (ranked #41 in 1992) and Days and Nightsin the Forest (ranked #81 in 1982). The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll also included the Guru Dutta’s films Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (both tied at #160), the Ritwik Ghatak films Meghe Dhaka Tara (ranked #231) and Komal Gandhar (ranked #346), and Raj Kapoor’s Awaaraa, Vijoy Bhatt’s Baiju Bawra, Meheboob Khan’s Mother India and K, Asif’s Mughal-e-Azam all tied at #346.In 1998, the critics' poll conducted by the Asian Film magazine Cinemaya included The Apu Trilogy (ranked #1 if votes are combined), Ray's Charulata and The Music Room (both tied at #11), and Ghatak's Subarnarekha (also tied at #11). In 1999, The Village Voice top 250 "Best Film of the Century" critics' poll also included The Apu Trilogy (ranked #5 if votes are combined). In 2005, The Apu Trilogy and Pyaasa were also featured in Time Magazine’s “All Time” 100 best movies list
** Modern Indian Cinema:-.
Some filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s, alongside satyajit Roy, Mrinal Sen, Ritwik Ghatak, Buddhadev Dasgupta and Goutam Ghose in Bengal Cinema; Adoor Gopalakrishnan andG, Aravindan in Malayalam cinema; and Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalni and Vijoy Meheta in Hindi cinema, However, the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. The 1970s did, nevertheless, see the rise of commercial cinema in form of enduring films such as Sholay (1975), which solidified Amitabha Bachchan’s position as a lead actor. The devotional classic Jai Sontoshi Ma was also released in 1975 Another important film from 1975 was Dewar, directed by Yash Chopra and written by Salim-Javed. Acrime film pitting "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan", portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan, it was described as being “absolutely key to Indian cinema” byDanny Boyle
Commercial cinema further grew throughout the 1980s and the 1990s with the release of films such as Mr India (1987),Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), Tezaab (1988),Chandni Jayenge,Chandni (1989), Maine Pyar Kiya (1989), Baazigar (1993),Darr (1993), Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge. (1995) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998), many of which starred Amir Khan,Salaman Khan and Shahruk.
The 1990s also saw a surge in the national popularity of Tamil Cinema as films directed byMani Ratnam captured India's imagination. Such films includedRoja (1992) and Bombay (1995). Ratnam's earlier filmNayagan (1987), starring Kamal Hasan, was included in Time magazin’s “All TIME”100 best movies, alongside four earlier Indian films: Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy (1955-1959) and Guru Dutta’s Pyaasa (1957) Another Tamil director S,Shankar who made waves through his Kadhalan very famous for its songs ,dance and graphics which was big at that time in India. The Soth Indian Indian film industry not only released cinema with national appeal but also featured multicultural music, which found appreciation among the Indian audience Some Tamil film composers such as A.R. Rahman and Ilyaraja have since acquired a large national, and later international, following.Tabarana Kathe,a Kanada cinema was screened at Various Film Festivals including Tashkent, Nantes, Tokyo and the Film Festival of Russia. Rahman's debut sound track of Raja was included in Time magazin’s “All TINE” 100 bestsound tracks" of all time and he would later go on to win two Academic Awards for his international SlundogMillionare (2008) soundtrack.
Long after the Golden Age of Indian cinema, South India's Malayalam cinema of Kerala experienced its own 'Golden Age' in the 1980s and early 1990s. Some of the most acclaimed Indian filmmakers at the time were from the Malayalam industry, including Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G, Aravindan,T,V, Chandran and Shaji N,Karun. Adoor Gopalakrishnan, who is often considered to be Satyajit Ray's spiritual heir, directed some of his most acclaimed films during this period, includingElippathayam (1981) which won the Sutherland Trophy at the London Film Festival, as well as Mathilukal (1989) which won major prizes at the Venice Film Festival Shaji N. Karun's debut film Piravi (1989) won the Camera d’Or at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival, while his second filmSwaham (1994) was in competition for thePalme d’Or at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival.
In the late 1990s, 'Parallel Cinema' began experiencing a resurgence in Hindi cinema, largely due to the critical and commercial success of Satya (1998), a low budget film based on the Mumbai underworld, directed by Ram Gopal Verma and written by Anurag Kashyap. The film's success led to the emergence of a distinct genre known asMumbaia noir urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai Later films belonging to the Mumbai noir genre includeMadhur Vandarkar’s Chandm Bar (2001) and Traffic Signal (2007), Ram Gopal Varma's Company (2002) and its prequel D (2005), Anurag Kashyap's Black Friday (2004), and Irfan Kamal's Thanks Maa (2009). Other art film directors active today include Mrinal Sen, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Gautam Ghose, Sandip Roy, Aparna Sen, and Rituparna Ghosh in Bengali cinema; Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun and T. V. Chandran in Malayalam cinema; Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalni, Shyam Benegal, Mira Nair, Nagesh Kukunoor, Sudhir Mishra and Nanda Fas in Hindi cinema; Mani Ratnam and Santosh Sivan in Tamil cinema; and Deepa Mehta, AnantBalani, Homi Adajania and Sooni Taraporevala in Indian English cinema.
India is considered to be the largest producer of feature films in the world.
Indian cinema has come a long way from the shaky flickering images and grating noises and sounds to a very sophisticated state-of-the-art technology for creation and projection of image and sound track. India's film business was $2.1 billion in 2006, as per PWC and FICCI.
The people's lifestyle and sociology have been reflected in the mind-boggling number of 27,000 plus feature films and thousands of documented short films in 52 different languages making it the largest and most fascinating film producing country in the world -- a phenomenon which the world cannot ignore. Ramoji Film City, outside Hyderabad (AP) is the biggest film single center in the world for making films, outside of the US.
The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of the number of films produced annually (1,091 feature films and over 1,200 short films were released in the year 2006 alone). In contrast, 473 films were produced in the US in 2003 (India produced 877 movies in 2003). Movie tickets in India are among the cheapest in the world. India accounts for 73% of movie admissions in the Asia-Pacific region, and earnings are estimated at 2.9 billion dollars in the year 2007
The industry is mainly supported by the vast cinema-going Indian public. The Central Board of Film Certification of India cites on its website that every three months an audience as large as India's billion-strong population visits cinema halls.
Indian films are popular in various parts of the world, especially in countries with significant Indian communities. The most important trend for the Indian entertainment industry is that the number of Indians scattered around the world are numbering close to the affluent population back in India. And as entertainment becomes a strong ethnic bond for Indians in alien lands, theatre owners, TV/cable channel operators, event managers are all hankering for Indian entertainment products.
It is a government organization that produces a large number of documentry films and news magazine which is known as ‘newsreal’. Film division of India also produces 16 mm short films for the rural audience in different languages.Film division also produces various cartoon and educational films for several ministries and departments of the government. The films are mostly presented by ‘Doordarshan’ and cinema theatres.Also,such films are shown by’Field Ppublicity Unit’ of central and different state governments as well as by several educational institutions,social organizations,film societies and industrial houses. Such films are also sent for abroad presentation through our different embassies.
Film division organizes different film festivals which are usually held in state capitals of the country,with a view to reach out of a large number of viewers.In the year 1990,the film division produces 192 documentaries and 28 newsreals for the viewers.the division won many national and international awards for its important contribution.n the year 1990, the film division arranged ‘International Film Festival’ in Bombay.
National Film Division Corporation (NDFC).
A governmantal organization that was set up in the year 1980 in the banner NDFC,which aimed at the promotion and assistance to the production of good films for thetasteful viewers. It extends its financial assistance to the prolific film makers with a view to enhance the Indian film wave in good manner.It generally emphasizes to contribute to low budget film. Beside this NDFC produces film on very good scripts and if, inteligent as well as well-known directors are available in the part of direction. NDFC achieved a significant success in producing ‘Gandhi’ with the co-partnership with the director Sir Richard Attenborough at its first attemt to such mission. It also produced a widely accepted and many international awards winning film ‘Salam Bombay’
NDFC extends its financial assistance to cinema theatres also. It imports foreign films for domestic distribution as well as it exports Indian films
Directorate Of Film Festivals:-
Directorate of film festivals of constituted in the year 1973 with a view to promote good cinema through organizing international film festivals in our country India. It promotes very good quality cinema when such festivals are held in different cities of India. as well as in different countries in the world. In addition to this,it has started NDFC video classic scheme that provides classic films from all over the world..
Fim And Television Institute Of India.
Film and television institute of India (FTII) was established in the year 1961 in Pune. It was set up with a view to train and educate the tentative as well as talented young people in the art of film making. It also render training in television to the personnels of ‘Doordarshan’.It also provides training in film photography,sound recording and engineering and film editing. The Institute introduces student-film in different film festivals held nationally and internationally.
Children Film Society,India:-
This society (CFSI) was set up in the year 1955, with an autonomously operated existence,as to promote,acquire and distribute films with healthy entertainment for the children and young people. Its headoffice is in Bombay and other regional offices are inDelhi, Calcutta and madras.It has produced and acquired 283 films upto 1990. Out of which 89 films were feature and rest were of short film.
The society organizes children film festivals in India.It also participates in international children film festival.The society can claim its greater contribution in enhaninge and fulfillment the objectivity of children’s film movement.
Overview And Impact Of Film:-
Cinema is still, a pular mediun for the rural people extensively Cinema is considered an easy and cheap medium for enjoyments and entertainment to the economically backwarded rural people. Although, the number of cinema hall,is not conforming to the norms and guidelines as laid by UNESCO. India is lacking the required ratio 1000:1 i.e. one cinema hall for every thousand people.But irrespective of sufficient cinema hall available in urban areas,the number of viewers have been fallen down,dut to availibilty of different entertainment and amusement adequetely.
India produces largest number of cinema in the world. We can take the opportunity of viewing different types of cinema like mythological, historical, religious, social, romantic, art and features and commercial.But, present Indian film makers are seriously engaged in making commercial film of cheap entertainment. Commercial cinemas basically, are produced by certain ‘formula’ and ‘masala’as well.The content and other materials that are included in the cinema, can produce a cheap and easy entertainment of sex,romance ,sentiment as well as violrnce . Commercial cinema can not reflect the actual portayal of major people’s lifestyle. Present Indian cinema al most, try to highlight the potrayal of that spciety of economicallytoo higher than the average Indians. Indian cinema as being a popular medium for the mass,can not produce any’ idealism’ or ‘mission’within the viewers at all It helps to run the society towards achieving an ‘unattainable target’.It provokes and shapes up the society people, to be accustomed with higher lifestyle of luxerity and higher comfortablity as well as vanity rather than everfighting usual life that conforms to the economic status of average people
Audio-visual media like’Film’, can influece the common people easily. It presents what,is caught by the viewer’s eyes very quickly. Either positive or nagative in the sense,good or bad,almost every presentation through the film,has an impact on the audiece,and that is inculcated or implemented by someone among them later on.Such responsive attribution of the viewers could be considered as natural.Present commercial films are presenting the contents of violence,robbery and other anti-social elements profusely. Such undesirable presentations as conducted by a mass media like ‘Film’,can seduce the society youngs as well.The flexible mind of the younger generation,could easily be inspired and attributed to its inplementation of the same which they view, later on.Present cinema indeed,fails to generate any ;idealism’ and ‘mission’ within the teenagers specifically. Modern youngsters mostly, have been shaped up to be arrogant,reckless, violent and over sentimental.Today’s youngsters bear less feelings in their mind and do what almost selfishly,for their own comfortablity and statisfaction.The dedicative attitude of the younger generation,has almost been disappeared which is not desireable to any healthy society at all.So,the film-makers should have grater attention towards making a healthier society through the selection of good and healthier contents for the viewers all,that could lead the society to run in good manner and right