Apart from the highlu organized medium of mass communication that are used in excessive manner presently, like print, audio and audio-visual medium,traditional folke media is popular among the rural masses considerably well .Traditional media generally,cover folk song, folk dance drama that depict the the stories of most common rural dwellers.Traditional folk media can not present what it want to deliver, in glamorous and colourful manner equally, as compared to other organized sector of mass medium that we have.Traditional folk media cultivate the rural lifestyle and culture specifically,as to match their needs and demand,who are illiterate and backwarfed as well.Traditional folk media go with rural masses side by side, bringing slower change in their development.Although,they provide so many messages, that contribute to the rural development significantly.Traditional folk media can command a very strong position in the rural people’s mind , as it weave almost of its messages to serve thevarious needs and purposes as well as entertain the numerous rural people as well
What consists of Traditional Folk media?
Traditional folk media generally include the presentation of different types of programmes like folk song & music, folk dance,yatra, drama & theatres, puppetry and street theatre etc.All programmes have the individual criterias and attraction as well, that can render distinctive taste and flavour to the audiences well.
Here is few popular programmes, those are widely accepted among the people, in different states or region for its’ unique presentation of excellence.
1. Tamasha:- It is a commercial theatre like,widely popular in Maharastra and in other part of western india.Female performer carries on the programme of singing ‘on demand’ as proposed by the patrons among the audiences.Such programme does not convey any message on religion or morals of life or social values.Only ‘Dholki-baris’,a refined from of ‘Tamasha’,delivers such effective messages.
2. Powada (Powala}:- It is a folk balad form,that is widely accepted by ‘Maharastrian’. It appeared during the 16th century,and carries a dramatic form of nature. Powada is presented mostly,by telling the stories of history. By singing in accordance with the musical instruments,is its main feature.
‘Keertana’ (Harikeertan):- It is a kind of ‘monodrama’,in which whole presentation is operated or performed by single actor. Such a single actor enter into the topic, by acting different characters lying in it.Here,one actor,performs various roles simultaneously, at a time to tell the stories of all characters concerned.that y evolves an environment both interests and attractive moods within the audience . The uniqueness of ‘keertana’ is,that the a single person carries the entire programme,by holding charm of the programme as well.Such ‘harikeertana’, is widely popular in many states in India like, Mmaharastra, Karnataka, Bengal etc.keertana,covers the stories in our ‘epic’ generally.
Yakshagana:- It is another type folk drama, that is widely popular in Karnataka. It is constituted basically on ‘Bhagabata’,but presented in addition with local flavour,as to produce extra charm into it. Here, the narrator sings and explains then the theme to the audiences. It is indeed, a mass medium for educating as well as entertaining the people as well.
Nautakin:- It is the most popular folk drama form,can be seen in north India widely.It is generally, performed openly irrespective to any special arrangement as done in ‘Jatra’.It starts with the presence of a ‘sutradhar’,who is narrator of the story,that taken from ancient epic or historical events.A small group or unit,take part in such drama ‘nautakin’,as to perform other roles pertaining to the story chosen for this purpose.It renders messages through its presentation is, both educative and entertaining as well.
Jatra:- A popular folk drama that widely celebrated in east & north-east India like, West Bengal,orissa,tripura and Assam. It is an organized teamworks and performed by well set-up groups or units, who are professionally engaged for better presentation to the audiences,as to move forward this social & cultural form of folk media.In an well set-up stage outfit,equipped by light & sound system,The whole programme creats an environment of charming and attractive moods for the audiences.It goes through a chosen story,taken from history, ancient epic, social or political matter,which is well written by script writer.The characters all pertaiming to the story undertaken for Jatra,are pweformed by the other performers in the group concerned. Jatra,is really aducative as well as an entertaining form of rural folk media.It is also,adored in urban equally.
Bhavai:- A stylized medieval dramatic form,Bhavai is extensively adored in Gujrat. Basically it is being operated initially,by Ranglo’ and Naik followed by other characters. Ranglo is considered to be a ‘stock chacter’and jester at the samerime. Naik is here,a sutradhar who delivers the dialogues abundantly in attractive style.
The programme starts with devotional song which is dedicated to ‘Amba’.Then her son Gonesh enters into the stage to perform his role by hiding his appearance by a brass plate.At the end of his role, Gonesh faces to the audiences as usual form.The total programme carries a lot of varieties like dialosongs,music,songs,dances and acrobatics,that can not signify itsexcellence or improved quality rather than individual perticipantl’s uniqueness. Although,it can fetch much more audiences ,that implies its sound popularity.
Therukoothu:- It is the most popular traditional folk media of Tamilnadu.Therukoothu includes a combination of different puppetry like,Puravi Attam, Nizhal Attam,Kazhai Koothu. Kalachem and Villupattu. It is a charming street theatre,composed in accordance with the music,drama and dances of classical flavaoured. The presentation,takes into account the characters like,koothadi (clown) and the god ‘Ganesha’ Currently,Therukoothu has significantly been changed from its origin of forms and shapes. It is now being presented on thewell-arranged stage or screen, in the form of sangeetha and natakan in attractive form.
Rammlia And Rashlila:-Bboth of the programs, are widely adored and accepted in rural society of India. Ramlila specifically,celebrated in northern India.It presents, a series of stories on lord Rama. It includes the stories,starting from the birth of prince Rama, childhood of Rama, sworn in as the king of Ayoddhya, marriage with Sita and so on, a long lasted dramatic play,that can attract and entertain so many viewers easily.
Rashlila,on the other hand, is also, could be seen to be celebrated widely in northern state of India, Maharastra,Kerala and in other places in our country. Rashlila is an enchanting play,that presents the storiesall about the relative matters between lord Krishns and Radha,taking with the ‘goppies’.The entire play is very interesting, and flavoured with juicy entertainment wrapped with religious feelings and motives.
Street Theatre:- .During the decade between seventy and eighty,the street theatre appeared vigorously in Indian mass communication. Street theatrse, that can be seen in different types and styles, involve the activities of differebt groups or organization who accomplish such dramatic play or show openly to render their messages to the public widely.Specially,political parties,student unions,religious groups,Women welfare organization and NGOs,are involved in presenting such attractive show or play,with a view to draw thepublic attention as well as generating the awareness whin them through the delivered messages.Such street thetre can be seen in different states like West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh,Kerala and Tamilnadu in India. About six oi seven thousand groups have been engaged in playing on such street thetre in India.
In the year 1944,Bijan bhattacharya did set up Indian people’s Theatre Association (IPTA),apioneer theatre group,that conducted first play on the street.Its objective was to highlight the exploitation were taking places within the innocent and ignorant peasants of Bengal.
The street theatres generally,carry the social culture and education as well for the audiences a lot.it cludes local folk forms and styles to remain as one of the streangthful medium of mass communication.
Puppetry:- It is one of the most popular as well as adored folk medium, that can attract the children and adults equally. In India,puppetry can be seen in four types or forms.Puppetry is widely seen in Orissa,Karnataka, Tamilnadu,Andhrarajsthan and West Bengal.There are four types of puppetry. Sutradharika ,Rod Puppetry,Shadow puppetry and Hand Puppetry.
** Strength & Advantages Of Teaditional
Traditional folk media that cover the various performances that relate to express all events and facts,ideas & thoughts of the respective rural society through the presentation in the manner of pleasure & enjoyments.Although,traditional folk media,sya what,are mostly come to us ridiculously or humorously as well.But,it does never mean that the traditional folk media has no effective message,which is incapable to influence or impact the rural audiences.On the contrary,it could be stressfully said, that the traditional folk media can mould or motivate the numerous unwary and illiterate villagers effectively.It cater what for the rural people,are mostly in easy and understandable manner.It apply very common and widely used languages of the respective society which make any presentation understandable quickly. The presentations as catered by the traditional folk media, always come to the rural people in the form of entertainment and enjoyments as well. On the way of giving pleasure and enjoyment,traditional folk media educate the rural illiterates so many,by rendering useful informations regarding healthcare,child& women education,employment and other roundabout, as to make the rural people wary of the present life.As the performers of the traditional folk media,are all concerned to the respective rural society,can present various facts,difficulties,applicable resources for better output and all other ins and out of the society in better manner.So, messages evolved from such rural media naturally,would serve the purpose of numerous backwarded rural people definitely.Beside this, as there is minimal accessibility to the mass media like, newspaper,radio and television in the rural society, so,major people’s interests and emphasis is naturally lying on such traditional folk media predominantly.As the Traditional folk media ,cater its major programmes through ‘face to face’presentations to the audiences,it can command the ‘confidence’ of them as well.It can earn the ‘credibility’ through its live presentations easily from the audience.So,the Traditional folk media take the opportunity of ‘moulding’ and ‘motivating’the rural people,by delivering its’ messages.It is true,that the traditional folk media have significant contribution towards bringing the success of many developmental programmes like ‘Family Welfare’,’Children Education’etc as undertaken by the government of the state.It also have inspired the rural people in adopting the latest techniques in cultivation as well. Traditional folk media thus,can claim to be the ‘mentor’ of unaware and backwarded rural society.Modern mass media today,pay more attention and emphasis on the various enchanting as well as humorous prgrammes all, as catered by the traditional folk media with a view to further presentation in their channels.Presently,the television medium cater off and on,the programmes from ‘traditional folk media’lively. It can be considered as the ‘reward’paid to the ‘Traditional folk media’for their dedication to the rural society people.Traditional folk media have considerable flexibility in comparishon to other mass madia that have.It can introduce any messages instantly,according to its necessity for beterising the presentation,which other mass medium can not perform.Above all,it can impact the audience with an immediate effect through its catered programmes, in exchange of less expenses that it can afford easily.At the sametime,the rural people so,can enjoy all programmes that the traditional folk media provide in dedicative manner.
Role Of Folk Media:-
. Folk media play very important role on the rural citizens of our country. The rural people are mostly, illiterate, simple and ignorant as well,and this is why ‘Folk Media’have come to be very suitable to them all. As the messages all, delivered by the folk media, are easy and understandable quickly as well, So,the villagers can enjoy its presented programm as a whole.Very few common errors that take places in our daily life, folk media oftenly try to to point out those, as to aware through their presentation. Folk media carry a diverse messages,of education,political,social,healthcare and agricultural innovation,as to inform and educate the rural citizens.In the village life,wherethe medium of mass communication like radio, newspaper and television,. Have not been profuse introduced,folk media have tried to compensate such wider incoverage as well as the communication gap.Folk media,as it do not maintain any decorum and well any protected status like other mediums of mass communication have, that allows the rural audiences to come closer to such media considerably well..On the otherhand,the communicator presents the messages,, related to the facts that happen in villagelife everyday. As the major messages in folk media, are delivered in the form of entertainment, to the audiences,who have no experience or any tastes for other types of amusement or entertainment at all like other urban citizens, tend come to closer with such easily available rural media of interests and get themselves stick to its presented programmes all with greater emphasis The predominant emphasis of rural people,has been mostly utilized by the folk media, through their presentation of varied programmes, that contribute to the development of rural sector significantly.it cater so many programmes on ‘family welfare’, ‘adult & women education’ ‘uses of fertilizers to boost the crops production’,’pollio vaccination’etc. so many other issues, with a view to aware and motivate the unwary rural people,as to impulse them to the right direction,in achieving the goals for the development of the nation as well.Although,folk media messages, are insufficient,lack of proper exidence or documentation and indecently catered to the audiences,it appear to be fruitful and exist uptothe mark to the mark of the living standard of the rural villagers or people to persuit their needs and demands as well.
* Utilization Of ‘Folk media’ In Social Change.*
In bringing change to the rural society, folk media perform what, is conceded significantly. It can act as the mover of ‘rural education & culture’ in one hand, and act as the ‘surveillant’of the rural society on the other hand. The folk media possess wider flexibility (in few cases it maintain well rigidity although ),that determines the viability of this medium for rural communication. As have wider flexibility, the folk medium,can include any facts or event for delivering the same through their presentation, to the audiences immediately. The other medium of mass communication,have no such opportunity or way to execute the same. Beside this,a very quick or instant interaction between the audiences and the communicator,is possible satisfactorily in an easy environment. Such inter-active part done satisfactorily, can command a successful communication which may lead in developing the rural society with the utilization of rendered ideas and thoughts as available from it. The only need, that the folk media , should be improved more its’ ‘quality of ‘messages’, ’selection oflatest issues’ and ‘presenting style& form’over all. Beside these, sense of decency and communicator’s ability to maintatin the balance between the message and entertainment, is necessary utmost, as to make the folk media more upgraded and standardized. The communicator who leads the programme here,would require the sense and awareness of presentable messages based on ‘current interests’ at least. By avoiding ‘vulgarity, impoliteness and reduncy’ in premted messages, rhe communicator would require, a sense of sophistication and perfection in it’s presentation. .
Folk media,as being most popular medium of rural communication system,have mostly been fighting for their existence. Most of them.are economically suffered severely. As, theircatered programmes are neither being sponsord by any commercial organization, nor being commercially paid up (as held in cinema or theatre) by the viewers all, confrontation of monetary trouble, that impedes its’ progress oftenly, is a major comcerned, lying in folk media. So,a greater care and attention,would require indispensably.otherwise,folk media,might loose its strength all,in enhancing the rural culture & education as well as social values and morals.
Moreover, a continuous study and innovation is required from the government of state adequately,for the better establishment of such rural‘ media as it could run strengthfully, which is beloved and adored by villagers all. If folk media,could survive vigorously and could perform strengthfully, then more valueable contribution to the rural society might be expected, that could lead a significant change towards the society as well.
** How To Improve & Strengthen ‘Folk Media’? **
It is needless to say, that the folk media have been appeared and stood as the most important as well as an indispensablemedium for the rural society. It reflect the unwary life-style and inadvanced living condition of rural people,with a view to open their eyes and developing their mind and attitude as well.The traditional folk media speak all about the village life with the aid of their insufficient ability and and poor performances.In their presentations catered what,are conventional and lack many current or updated informations,that do not match to the present to other medium of mass communication can provide to the masses.
Although,soon after the independence of India,in the year 1954, the government of India, established the ‘song and drama division’ with its own initiation and sponsorship,in this purpose. The objectivity of forming such organization, was to facilitiatte necessary training amd education with developed ideas and thoughts in this regard.
Beyond this, the communicator,would require to perform an important role in enhancing the’ ideals and mission’ of folk media, with a view to achieving the required progress and prosperity for the rural society of India.For this purpose, a communicator must be aware of these points, as mentioned below;
(a) He must naintain a balance between ‘entertainment’ and ‘messages’, by avoiding exaggerated content materials.
(b) He should be objective more,rather than descriptive unnecessarily.
© he should be well cautious and keep watch on the current happenings around him.
(d) He must try to improve the quality of messages,that would need to deliver to the audience and should be so, correctly.
(e) Selection of deliverable messages or contents to the audiences,that are available so many,is an important job of the communicator.So,the communicator,would require to perform the same very keenly and competently,with a view to making the applied efforts and time to such presentation,be successful as well.
(f) Communicator’s delivered message, should be concise,specific,objectful and understandable to the audiences over all.
*OvevView On Traditional ‘Folk’ media:- *
The citixens in major, of our country India, have been dwelling in the rural areas,that contribute to a greater part of nation amd its development. We can not deny,that India’s development,is mostly dependable on the progress and development of that greater part indeed. In the matter of urban development, mass communication mediums all,can command a significant role as they play in regular manner. It also our duty and responsibility,to inspire and impulse the traditional ‘folk media,as they might run and play its role bitterly, as to serve the rural masses needs and demands as well. In this respect, the major mediums of the mass communication,would require to highlight the attractive presentations selectively in their own presentable slots or time. More enthusiasm would produce within the ‘folk’ media concerned all.Such enthusiasm produced within them,would lead them further progress with new innovative activities in future, definitely..
**Indian Recorded Music Industry & Book Publishing**
Age Of Disc;
Indian recorded music industry,primarily came with the hand of ‘Gramaphone Company Of India’(which is bitterly known as HMV),which started its business operation in the year 1907,with its office in Kolkata. Although, first music song was recorded during the year 1902,in Mumbai. It is true, that Indian recorded music industry got a breakthrough,after Indian ‘talkis’ ,came into the film world rovustly, in the year 1931. Gramaphone Company Of India, have dominated the Indian music market,for a long period of time.
Formerly, recorded musics were available in different types of discs like; Single Play (SP), Extended Play (EP),33 RPM and 78 R.P.M.(Long play). Many years after independence, in Indian music market,Polydor and INRECO,another two companies appeared in the year 1969 and 1973 respectively.Beside this,a few number companies like EMI, Hinduatan Records,etc.also had sound involvement in the market of recorded music.
Age Of recorded Cassettes & Compact DiscL-
Recorded cassettes came predominantly in Indian music market, during the decade seventy.It is all but true, that the arrival of recorded cassettes have replaced the uses of older discs. Recorded cassettes, could impose or record many more musics than the older discs that we had. Not only that, the musuc cassettes have greater abilty in recording musics many more in numbers as compared to any older disc,but also, it is less expensive than any disc.So,the market of cassettes,remain alive still now in the present ongoing market of compact discs (CD).
Compact disc, came with the latst computerized technology,where more space could be allotted for recording more musics or songs thant that of cassettets.A cassette,that can provide maximum 90 minutes program in all respect,where a compact disc can afford more larger programme than a cassette anytime with greater quality of sound and melody at least.Presently, any music market in the world, is largely based on the uses of compact discs.In India, the uses of compact discs,diffused extensively at the end of the decade ninety.During this period,the cost of CD players began to decline,which existed as affordable to common people.
Although,India possesses, a big market ,but commercially it is not so highly compareable to globalstatus.The sales value of recorded musics in India is less than 2% of total value that globally held.
Remixing or Re-recording:-
An old recorded music,which is still popular as compared to the earlier,is re-recorded to suit the needs and interests of the present music lovers as well as to achieve commercial gain from it. Remix or recorded albums,are generally articulated, by keeping the ‘lyrics and tune’uninflicted.Only the whole is served by punchin a new beat in addition,as to flavour with a new taste. The music lovers of present generation,have been swallowing these new style of presenting the old film songs and others of higher popularity gained already in earlier days of the decades 50’s to 80’s. Remix album is prepared in two steps,as follows;
(1) Re-recording of rhythm track.
(2) Super-imposing of vocal track on it.
The crazy market of ‘remix’ albums,began in the decade of eighties and flooded in the decade next nineties.There were so many manufacturers,who intended into such gainful production of remix The practices of ‘remix’ or re-recorded’ cassettes or compact discs although ,have been able to suit the needs of manyone music lovers in India, but the tendency of presenting newly created songs or other musics,has considerably been interrupted.
* New Wave (indi-pop) In Indian Recorded Music* ;-
A new wave came in the mid nintees, that has striken Indian film songs and other musics as well. Indian pop has been punched with western,style and rhythm, as to present it with a new taste nd flavour to many music lovers. This newly presented (indi-pop) style,has considerably hit the market well,and has appeared to be an unavoidable challenge to the ‘film songs’ indeed. Such indi-pop songs,unveild first with an album,in the title of ‘ Made In India’, sung by Alishs Chinoy. This album did stir the recorded music market extensively, with the selling of 2.5 millioms of coppies. Then another hit album, ‘Bolo Tara Ra Ra’, sung by Daler Mehndi,attended the selling figure of over 1.5 millions coppies.Thus, indi-pop rhythm, went on vibrating predominantly across the country,that appeared as an growing challenge before the film songs and other musical songs as well.According to sources,indi-pop songs enjoy over 35% share in Indian msic market.Although, hindi film songs,continue its progress,in such competitive environment prevailing in India. Beside such tough marketing situation, the hindi film songs of ‘Hum Hai Apke Koun’ and ‘Dilwale Dulhanya Le Jayenge’, could pick up their selling figures of album over 10 millins of coppies. It signifies, that hindi film songs are still popular and also, able to grow and maintain interests within the millions of music lovers as well.
** Book Publishing:-
A long back history, of over 400 hundred years,that India continues to carry on, in the world of ‘Book Publishing’. In the year 1566,India experiencedits first publishing works at ‘Goa’,. beside this, ‘Chennai’ and ‘ Shreerampur’ (In Kolkata),can claim such publishin works at the same time. Later on , ‘Shreerampur mission press’,published over two lakhs of coppies in numbers of fifty different languages.Bu, India, as being a vast country with larger populations of 18% of the global,can contribute just 3% of global book titles. The print order is also, very miserable ! If the text books are excluded, the average print- run lies within 2000 copies only, where, the world average goes beyond 16000 copies.
In the segment of book pubishing,the important elements are
1.Author or Book Writer.
5. Book Sellers.
The scenario of Indian book publishing industry,is not so highly recommendable. In India, we have so many readers or lovers ofIndian books,which does not reflect the soundness of this industry at all. In this segment of book publishing,we often follow the poor economic condition of those who are seriously involved with such great works of educating,informing and motivating the citizens of India. It is dismal,that the ‘auther’,who is the ‘basis or initiator’ of the total works of book publishing,can enjoy a very little of monetary return from such entrepreneurship.Practically, the book industries all most,are in going with few inherent trouble and quietly unable to transcend the present competitive situation overall.
Although,from the end of Indian government, a few recommendable strides,that have been taken for overcoming such awkward situation in the book publishing sector as well as to bring possible development in this regard.
The ‘National Book Development Board’(NBDB),was set-up in the year of 1967,with the objectives,to bring further development and momentum in the book publishingsector. NBDB,with a better and well organized set-up,appeared in the year of 1970,where beside the government delegates,authesr,book publishers,Printers,Book sellers and non governmental agencies,were included for its (NBDB) higher performances and achievements in the total networks of book publishing.
National Book Trust (NBT), was constituted in the year of 1970, with a view to produce and encourage the production of good books in literature in different languages, as to make those are available to major libraries,and other educational institutions also. It aimed at making the book industry more stronger,by allowing subsidy to them. NBT,organizes ‘Book Fair’, both in national lavel as well as regionally,as to enhance the people’s interests and emphasis.on book reading.
Publication division of ministry for informations and broadcasting,takes the responsibility of production ,distribution and sale of books and journals of national importance,with a view to extend the dissemination of valuable and important informations to the Indian citizens as well as foreigners.
**Directorate Of Field Publicity (DFP):-
‘The Directorate of Indian Field Publicity’,has its headquarters in new Delhi and has so many regional offices lying in different state capitals across the country.It is a massive as well as active organization which act throughout the country,and considered to be the best inter-personal communication medium for the millions of the country people.
The organization DFP,try to reach and contact to manymore individuals as fer as possible, with its formed units or teams, being equipped by competent personnels and useful materials. The objectives of the units are,to inform as well as aware the major people of the country of the plans,programmes and decisions,as undertaken by the government for the their benefit.over all. The units try to highlight all about it , with the help of conducted seminer,discussion,audio and visual presentation,songs,drama,questioners etc to the people.
The directorate has 22 regional offices other than its headquarters and 273 units,which are working mostly in border areas as well as other places in our country.The main objectivity of DFB as a whole,is to generate awareness amon the people of backward remote places,about the plan,programmes,measures and decision of the government,in order to facilitating their life in better manner,by utilizing the same available to them. The units are well engaged as well as encourage the discussions on any other specific subjects like healthcare,chidren education,self-employment and agriculture etc.They provide the updated informations and indicate the possible ways for solution to the unaware people. Moreover,in the development programmes of the country,the people at large,are called into participations with their active involvements in such greater part of the nation.
Outdoor:- Beside the existin robust mediums of mass communication ,being operated organizingly, like print,radio,television and cinema, an extensively used medium for publicity, is ‘outdoor. It ’works effectively, as suitable medium of communication for the major illiterate and poor people of our country,who have no such widely access to print medium as well.as the television. Outdoor publicity generally includes,the display of different types of messages for different purposes,as to communicate larger part of the populations of the country.Through its all messages rendered, outdoor publicity intends to aware as well as to inform a large number of people,being displayed at so many prominent places or spots,where possible crowding could be held.We can experiencesuch outdoor publicity at rail station,bus terminus,cinema hall. Near the court premises,hospital etc,wherethe congession of a large number people,that could be expected to go through the messaes, as displayed by the outdoor publicity.
The messages for outdoor publicity, are generally displayed, as we see on the ‘hoarding,’signboard’ ,’glow & neon sign’, ‘ ‘cinema slides’ ‘kiosks’even in the form of printed materials on paper like pamphlets,handbills,brouchers etc Practically,the messages for outdoor publicity,appear to the public,in brief,and easily understandable manner.Moreover,the messages are presented in attractive form accorded with choosy languages,letters and sign or pictographs,that could be widely acceptable to the viwers all. Outdoor publicity,can draw the attention from both literate and illiterate people as well.In India and other country also,where outdoor publicity can serve the purposes in manyways like the publicising of any unveild products or services of any company or any other organization, even any important messages in the form of ‘alert or warning’ or any renderable important messages of development of the nation ,on behalf of the government of state or country, are widely spreaded through this means of outdoor publicity.